Sunday, February 23, 2020
Use of Force - Research Paper Example The paper shall also look at the limit to which the police can go and areas where the police has gone beyond its boundaries in order to do its duty. Use of force is described as the power which the agents of administration in the State apple to curb down the revolt from the people, as well as marinating law and order in the society for the effective functioning of the society. Ã¢â¬Å"Governments and law enforcement agencies shall adopt and implement rules and regulations on the use of force and firearms against persons by law enforcement officials. In developing such rules and regulations, Governments and law enforcement agencies shall keep the ethical issues associated with the use of force and firearms constantly under review.Ã¢â¬ (Crimes Act 1914 - SECT 3ZQA, CommonWealth Consolidated Acts ) The Government uses force as a means to prevent crime in the society. In the developed and the developing nations, the State allows the police, which is the body responsible for controlling law and order, to use force as a means for the prevention of crime or for the deterrence of the same. One of the examples of such move would be when the police is deployed to manage riots which have broken in out in a number of States throughout the world. The state uses the tools to manage the situation in the society. The use of force may also be used by the executive branch when it deploys the military for the safety of the society and the maintenance of law and order. The system is managed in a way that the State uses force only when it is required in extreme circumstances. Governments and law enforcement agencies should develop a range of means as broad as possible and equip law enforcement officials with various types of weapons and ammunition that would allow for a differentiated use of for ce and firearms. These should include the development of non-lethal incapacitating weapons for use in appropriate situations, with a view to increasingly restraining the application of means capable of causing death or injury to persons. For the same purpose, it should also be possible for law enforcement officials to be equipped with self-defensive equipment such as shields, helmets, bullet-proof vests and bullet-proof means of transportation, in order to decrease the need to use weapons of any kind. Force can be divided into two segments: 1. Verbal Force 2. Non-Verbal Force Verbal force is the force which is applied to the people where the Administration tries to settle and solve the matter through the use of the words. It tries to pacify the crowd with the intension of not hurting anyone in the gathering. Verbal use of force can be accompanied by tear gas shells as well as other means of retaliation by the police and the armed forces to avoid any kind of violence in public. The m ain idea with this regard is to make sure that no one gets hurt and the people are able to salvage their life without injuring their fellow beings in a mass protest or a riot. It should be applied in those cases where the police and the Para-military force feels that the tension has not gone out of hands and there is scope for the police to be able to control the crowd with the use of the word and not weapons. However, there is a very thin line of difference with respect to the force deployed by the plice and it should avoid in every circumstances to use non-verbal force. Non-Verbal Force: Non-verbal force is used in extreme circ
Friday, February 7, 2020
Use principles discussed in this course to explain some pattern of events or behavior that you personally have observed, or some environmental or energy challenge that you have encountered or read about - Essay Example fected by the electricity hikes are those consumer groups with small businesses and who may not cater for their expenses even with the profits made on a daily basis. The study develops the understanding that solar powered products are economically and environmentally friendly since they require the use of sunlight, which is readily available and a renewable energy source. Most companies, industries, and other businesses around the world depend on electricity for their production. Even families in the middle class appreciate the consumption of electricity in their domestic and commercial activities, for example, in cooking, cleaning, complete lighting, and office related tasks. Because of fewer sources of water, the hydropower stations cannot generate enough electricity to suit everybody and because of this, there have been power rations and escalated prices too. This is done to help manage the little amount of electricity to be enough for every company, industry, business, or even families. Different towns and cities will go without power in certain days and this means that many businesses may not be able to achieve their daily targets and especially on those specific days since they only depend on electricity to go through with their production (Langhamer, Kalle, and Jan 1336). The strategic economic integration with the use of solar-powered products extends its effect to helping those people from the low-income margins that once appreciated the electricity, but have to adapt to other cheaper sources so as to save on expenses. The introduction of solar lamps has been appreciated by the lower class people since they are cheaper, reliable, and economical. This way, the demand of the facilities is much lower compared to electricity. In conclusion, this study shows that although the use of solar powered facilities may be much economical and reliable, a certain group of people may not benefit from the initiative. The demand of solar facilities then may not be high
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Comets Essay A comet is a small body, roughly the size of a small town, in the Solar System. It is made up of ice, rock, dust, carbon dioxide, ammonia, methane and more. Some researchers think comets might have originally brought some of the water and organic molecules to Earth that now make up life here. Comets become visible as they near the Sun. The tail of a comet is its most characteristic feature. Round and round a comet goes in its orbit and when it comes into the inner solar system. Each time a comet gets closer to the Sun, the ice on the surface of the nucleus, measuring ten miles or less, begins turning into gas, forming a cloud known as the coma. Radiation from the sun pushes dust particles away from the coma, which can reach 1 million miles wide, forming a dust tail, while charged particles from the sun convert some of the comets gases into ions, forming a stream of volatile materials known as an ion tail. Some tails can reach 100 million miles long. The tail of the comet always points away from the Sun, since they are shaped by sunlight and the solar wind, so that when the comet is receding from the Sun, its tail actually runs before it. Typical comet loses about one tenth of a percent of its mass every time it passes near the Sun. After one thousand passages or so, Comets lose all their ices, leaving behind only an orbiting stream of fragile, inactive objects, meteoric dust, ice, and pebbles, similar to an asteroids. When Earth, in its annual journey around the Sun, passes through one of these dusty tracks, we are treated to a meteor shower. For centuries, scientists thought comets traveled in the Earths atmosphere, but in 1577, observations made by Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe revealed they actually traveled far beyond the moon. Isaac Newton later discovered that comets move in elliptical, oval-shaped orbits around the Sun, and correctly predicted that they could return again and again. Throughout history comets inspired both wonder and fear. They were known as hairy stars resembling fiery swords that appeared unpredictably in the sky. Often, comets seemed to be omens of doom. The most ancient known mythology, the Babylonian Ã¢â¬Å"Epic of Gilgamesh,Ã¢â¬ described fire, brimstone, and flood with the arrival of a comet. (Goldman, 2009) Chinese astronomers kept extensive records on comets for centuries, including illustrations, observations and celestial positions of Halleys Comet going back to at least 240 BC; historic archives that have proven valuable resources for later astronomers. A few dozen comets are discovered annually by astronomers with telescopes or on photographic plates. Comets are usually named after their discoverer, and/or has spacecraft missions incorporated into their name. Most Comets are too faint or small to be seen without a telescope. Only every few years does a comet grow bright enough to be seen with the naked eye. A highly visible comet was Hale-Bopp, which came within 122 million miles of Earth in 1997. Its unusually large nucleus gave off a great deal of dust and gas, roughly 18 to 25 miles across, appeared bright to the naked eye. Our solar system is surrounded by a sphere, or cocoon, of cold, dark comets called the Oort Cloud, far beyond the orbit of Pluto, that reaches halfway to the nearest stars. Most Comets are believed to inhabit The Oort Cloud, however it has never been observed directly; but it must exist to account for the comets that arrive in our vicinity from enormous distances. (Dickinson, 1999). The Kuiper Belt, was discovered in an attempt to locate the non-existent tenth planet, planet X. The Kuiper belt was named after Gerard Kuiper an astronomer who predicted its existence in 1951. The Kuiper belt is a belt of comets. The first of these comets was picked up in 1992 during a deliberate search by astronomers. It is a chunk of primordial ice about 200 kilometers in diameter orbiting the Sun at 1 ? imes NeptuneÃ¢â¬â¢s distance. In the years since the discovery, more than 100 similar sized objects have been found in orbits outside NeptuneÃ¢â¬â¢s path. This is known as Trans-Neptunian Objects, (TNO). These giant cosmic ice balls are left over from the formation of the solar system. There are millions of comets six miles in diameter and thousands measuring a few do zen kilometers across, that form the Kuiper Belt. They are short-period comets. They take less than 200 years to orbit the sun, and in many cases their appearance is predictable because they have passed by before. Short period comets come around with steady regularity. Halleys Comet is likely the most famous short period comet in the world; it becomes visible to the naked eye on its return, every seventy-six years. Its last visit near Earth was in 1986. At that time five spacecraft flew past it, attaining extraordinary information, coming close enough to study its nucleus which is normally concealed by the comets coma. The potato-shaped, nine mile long contains equal part ice and dust, with about 80 percent of the ice made of water, and about 15 percent of it consisting of frozen carbon monoxide. Researchers believe other comets are chemically similar to Halleys Comet. The Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, discovered by Gene Carolyn Shoemaker and David Levy. March 25, 1993 (Raymo, 2001). This short-periodic comet was the comet of the Great Comet Crash of 1994. The comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 collided spectacularly with Jupiter in 1994, with the giant planets gravitational pull ripping the comet apart for at least 21 visible impacts. The largest collision created a fireball that rose about 1,800 miles (3,000 km) above the Jovian cloud tops as well as a giant dark spot more than 7,460 miles (12,000 km) across, about the size of the Earth. The Hubble Space Telescope, orbiting 375 miles above our planetÃ¢â¬â¢s surface, (Rosselli, 1998) has shown the effects of the comet smashing into the surface of Jupiter with an explosive power of 100 million megatons, which was the most violent event ever witnessed in the solar system. Hyakutake and Hale-Bopp are long-period comets. These Oort Cloud comets have orbital periods of thousands or millions of years. Their appearance is unpredictable. They follow long cigar shaped trajectories that take them far out beyond Pluto. They move like wave, up and down. At the cold, black tops of their curves, far from the Sun they proceed with a laborious leisureliness, taking as long as 30 million years to complete one trip around the sun. They gather speed as they fall toward the inner solar system, moving at its fastest, it punches around the Sun, then they slow again as they climb back to the tops of their trajectory. A potentially bright Oort cloud might be discovered at any time, typically somewhere near the orbit of Jupiter on its way center stage in the inner solar system. The brightest apparitions occur when a comet passes near Earth on its inward or outward journey. A comet is not like anything anyone has seen before. It is a starkly fascinating, and amazing visual experience, evoking passions of fear, anxiety, admiration, wonder, and bewilderment to the enlightened and unenlightened observer. Comets, especially those that are bright enough to be seen with the naked eye, continue to fascinate the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s population. With 2013 being deemed Ã¢â¬Å"Year of The Comet,Ã¢â¬ (Barnett, 2013), astronomers, scientist, and watchers of all kinds can look forward to a rare treat; two visible comets, Pan- STARRS (3/12/13) ISON (11/28/13), in one year!
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Introduction Culture is characterized by language, religion, food, music, arts and social norms (Zimmermann, 2012). Just from that definition, this characterizes diversity from a standpoint of cultural value, consumer behavior, and market environment. South Africa is the epitome of diversity. It is made up of a variety of other cultures that are all housed on one country. This country has 11 different ways to communicate, which is a great reason why South Africa is important in the global market. With many avenues of trade and a big sample size to trade with, this leads to unlimited resources and a booming global market. (Introduction: Describe research purpose and address the reasons why the selected country is important in global markets.) Cultural Variables South Africa is a unique country that has access to 11 different language uses (SA-Venues). In order from most used, they consist of Zulu, Xhosa, Afrikaans, English, Sepedi, Tswana, Southern Sotho, Tsonga, Swazi or SiSwati, Venda and Ndebele. Zulu and Xhosa being the 2 most commonly understood. Afrikaans derived from he Dutch and was used in its region as the 1st or 2nd language. The white inhabitants who have come to start a new life use English, Sepedi is grouped with the Northeastern part of South Africa. Tswana is the language of Botswana and are apart of Southeastern African language. The Vatsonga people, who are divided among their region, speak Tsonga. Swazi or SiSwati comes from this and create their own name in the country. Venda is a language common to the royal region of Limpopo. Their speakers are very popular and their speech influences others to adopt it. Then you have Ndebele, whose language is slowly fading because the other languages in Zimbabwe are more p... ...a and Gap (Contributor 2012). South Africa is the ideal place for brand development because they are so developed and styles are easily accepted. There is also the fact that their youth, like other countries, are heavily influenced by western cultures. This brand preference is all about an image and fitting in with social norms. As for consumer trends, South AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s society has a buy, but not save mentality (Clark, 2012). They would rather buy for the now, and not save for the future, which is both helping and hurting their economy. Retail and electronics are always going to be in demand and are always going to be top needs for consumers. When it comes time to pay the bills, people struggle to pay because they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t save. This keeping up with the Joneses trend is detrimental when it comes to things the people need, but perfect to keep up with societies standards.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Abstract The purpose of this essay will be to consider whether the process of devolution in the United Kingdom since 1999 has been successful and consider some of the points of convergence and divergence, which have occurred in terms of policy development in the region, as well the impact which the austerity measures introduced by the Coalition government have had on Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Introduction The process of devolution is one that can be considered as a response to widespread processes of restructuring in the forms of governance in the Western world and also a part of a global phenomenon (Rodriguez-Pose and Gill, 2005; Williams and Mooney, 2008; Keating et al. 2009). In the context of the UK, the process of devolution should be understood as the process of granting semi-autonomous legislative powers to the Scottish Parliament, the National Assembly of Wales and the Northern Ireland Assembly on behalf of the UK parliament (Gov.uk, 2013). Devolution in the UK specifically should be considered as a phenomenon of the political climate which existed in the second half of the 1990s. The process of devolution itself can be considered as an alternative to the policy adopted by successive Conservative governments in both Scotland and Wales (Trench, 2007). In addition, it was aimed to challenge the agenda set by more nationalist parties in the UK, whose political ideas and manifesto s gained popularity at the time (ibid.). Even though the newly established governing institutions had their predecessors in the past, which exercised similar legislative functions, the fact that they were now recognised as autonomous and sovereign was a major historical precedent (Rose, 1982). As a result of referendums taking place in September 1997 in Scotland and Wales, the Scottish Parliament and the Welsh National Assembly were established. In Northern Ireland, as a result of the signing of the Good Friday Agreement and following a national referendum in May 1998, the Northern Ireland Assembly was established (Birrell, 2009). In line with these developments in UK governance, the following essay will examine the impact which the process of devolution has had in terms of successful policy implementation. The impact of Devolution In the UK specifically, there are four different models of devolution, all reflecting the asymmetrical nature of the process and the different politics which characterise the different regions (Hazell, 2000). The Scottish parliament, for example, has a responsibility of developing policy in tackling the majority of domestic affairs without interference on behalf of the UK parliament. The Northern Ireland Assembly, on the other hand, has the capacity of passing legislation related to a wide range of issues; and the Welsh National Assembly has an elected assembly, which has been granted legislative powers following a referendum in 2011 (Gov.uk, 2013). In the rest of England outside London, where an elected mayor and assembly were established, the changes in administration were quite marginal and were reflected in the creation of Regional Development Agencies and unelected Regional Assemblies which have subsequently been abolished by the ConservativeÃ¢â¬âLiberal Democratic Coalition Government. As this indicates, UK devolution is a process rather than an event (Shaw and MacKinnon, 2011). As a result of the implementation of UK devolution acts, the legislative competence over devolved matters and democratic representation and authority was transferred to the newly established devolved parliaments. Basing devolution on the functions previously exercised by the territorial departments served to reduce conflict over the distribution of powers and resources in the short-term, but at the expense of any long-term resolution of territorial imbalances and tensions (Jeffery, 2007). While Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have their own devolved institutions, England is governed centrally by the UK parliament, meaning that UK and English political institutions have effectively become fused. One of the unique features of UK devolution is reflected in the limited autonomy of the regions to raise their own taxes and be responsible for their re-investment (Gov.uk, 2013). T his contrasts with many other devolved or federal states in which the national and sub-national tiers share responsibility for both the raising and distribution of revenue (MacKinnon, 2013). Arguably, this could have a negative impact on the overall performance of the devolved regions, as it puts them in a subordinate position to the UK parliament in terms of financing and self-sufficiency, a policy problem which in the occurrence of the global recession has affected all three of the devolved regions. Devolution has important repercussions for public policy (Greer, 2007; Greer, 2009; Jeffery 2007; Keating, 2002; Keating 2009). In effect, the process of devolution has allowed the newly established governments to design and implement policies which take into consideration the specific economic and social conditions of the regions, thereby presenting localised solution to localised problems (Jeffery 2002). Despite the differences which exist among the regions, some commonalities in pol icy development can also be observed, namely in the provision of health care and tackling public health problems. The common economic challenges, combined with a tight fiscal policy means that the convergence of healthcare politics in all the devolved regions are likely to the preserved for some time (Smith and Hellowell, 2012). With the ongoing debates of more financial independence of the regions, however, it appears more likely than not that in the near future a more pronounced divergence in healthcare policy could happen in the nearby future (ibid.). To summarise this section, the process of devolution can be considered a success, as it has enabled the devolved regions to take the initiative of developing and implementing tailored policy decisions which take into consideration the specific conditions and challenges which exist in every one of the regions, despite the austerity measures and the impact of the economic recession. Devolution has also brought with itself a political reconsideration and reprioritization equality and human-rights in compulsory-phase education and how these are promoted, following the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to mainstreaming (Chaney, 2011). With the different dimensions which devolution has in the UK, it appears plausible that the priorities of one government will not necessarily coincide with the priorities of another government. Moreover, within the different contextual settings, it is more than likely that different definitions of equality will be used (ibid.). Although there is still a long way to go in terms of promoting equality and human rights, devolution in the long-term could be the ground upon which more equal societies could be built. However, this is a fragile and slow process, and which, despite the progress achieved in the previous phase, largely associated with the policy of the New Labour, has come under threat by the politics of the Coalition Government, as the next few paragraphs will show. The process of devolution can be characterised by two distinct phases (MacKinnon, 2013). The first phase of UK devolution between 1999 and 2007 was characterised by common Labour Party government at the devolved and UK levels, stable inter-government relations and substantial increases in public expenditure (ibid). Over the period, the budgets of the devolved governments rose substantially between 2001/2002 and 2009/2010, (61.5% in Scotland, 60% in Wales and 62.6% in Northern Ireland) as a result of spending decisions taken by the Labour Government in London (HM Treasury 2007; 2011, as cited in MacKinnon, 2013). A new phase of devolution and constitutional politics has become apparent since 2007, defined by three distinguishing features (Danson et al., 2012). First, nationalist parties entered into government in Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast in 2007 as either minority governments or coalition partners. Second, there is the changed context of UK politics following the defeat of Labour in 2010 and the formation of a Coalition Government between the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats. Third, the economic context has changed radically following the financial crisis of 2007Ã¢â¬â2008 and the ensuing economic recession. In response, the Coalition Government adopted a programme for reducing public expenditure by ?81 billion by 2015Ã¢â¬â16, thereby eliminating the UKÃ¢â¬â¢s structural deficit (Lowndes and Pratchett, 2012: 23). This has meant that the introduction of austerity measures designed to address the UKÃ¢â¬â¢s budget deficit by the Coalition Government since 2010 has also had significant implications for the devolved governments, reducing their budgets and requiring them to administer cuts locally, although they have been vocal in their opposition to austerity and support of alternative policy approaches such as increased capital expenditure (McEwen, 2013). In this climate, the devolved governments have reaffirmed their commitment to social justice and solidarity (Scott and Mooney, 2009), with the Scottish Government, for instance, arguing that the UK Coalition GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s welfare reform agenda threatens the social democratic values of Ã¢â¬Ëcivic ScotlandÃ¢â¬â¢ (McEwen, 2013). In summary, despite the fact that the process of devolution has been successful in several aspects, all associated with granting a certain level of autonomy to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, this could all prove in vain unless more revenue-raising responsibilities are given to the regions. Conclusion The aim of this essay was to review the impact which the process of devolution has had in the UK. As it was noted, the nature of UK devolution should be considered as a long-term evolving process, rather than a single even. Economic and political conditions have changed markedly since the establishment of the institutions in 1999, particularly in terms of changes of government at devolved and Westminster levels, the onset of recession from 2008 and the introduction of a new politics of austerity. The underlying asymmetries of UK devolution have become more pronounced with the tendency towards greater autonomy for Scotland and Wales contrasting with greater centralisation and the abolition of regional institutions in England. These contradictions raise some fundamental questions about the territorial integrity of the state and the possible dissolution of Britain (Nairn, 2003) in the context of the Scottish independence referendum which is to be held in September 2014. As this essay ha s demonstrated, the process of devolution has achieved some notable successes in terms of public health, education policy and promoting equality, though it is impossible to predict what the future might hold in terms of further developments. Bibliography Birrell, D. (2009). The impact of devolution on social policy. The Policy Press. Chaney, P. (2011). Education, equality and human rights: Exploring the impact of devolution in the UK. Critical Social Policy, 31(3), 431-453. Danson, M., MacLeod, G., & Mooney, G. (2012). Devolution and the shifting political economic geographies of the United Kingdom. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 30(1), 1-9. Greer, S. (2007) Ã¢â¬ËThe fragile divergence machine: citizenship, policy divergence, and intergovernmental relationsÃ¢â¬â¢ (pp. 136-159), in Trench, A. (ed.), Devolution and power in the United Kingdom. Manchester University Press. Greer, S. (ed.) (2009). Devolution and Social Citizenship in the UK. The Policy Press. Gov.uk (2013) Devolution of powers to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/devolution-of-powers-to-scotland-wales-and-northern-ireland Hazell, R. (Ed.). (2000). The state and the nations: the first year of devolution in the U nited Kingdom. Imprint Academic. HM Treasury (2007) Public expenditure statistical analyses 2007, Cm 7091. London: The Stationery Office. HM Treasury (2011) Public expenditure statistical analyses 2007, Cm 8104. London: The Stationery Office. Jeffery, C. (2002). Devolution: Challenging local government. Joseph Rowntree. Jeffery, C. (2007). The Unfinished Business of Devolution Seven Open Questions. Public policy and administration, 22(1), 92-108. Keating, M. (2002) Ã¢â¬ËDevolution and public policy in the United Kingdom: Divergence or convergenceÃ¢â¬â¢ (pp.3-21), in Adams, J., & Robinson, P. (eds.), Devolution in practice: public policy differences within the UK. Institute for Public Policy Research. Keating, M. (2009) The independence of Scotland: Self-government and the shifting politics of union. Oxford University Press. Keating, M., Cairney, P., & Hepburn, E. (2009) Territorial policy communities and devolution in the UK. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 2( 1), 51-66. Lowndes, V., & Pratchett, L. (2012). Local governance under the Coalition government: austerity, localism and the Ã¢â¬ËBig SocietyÃ¢â¬â¢. Local government studies, 38(1), 21-40. MacKinnon, D. (2013). Devolution, state restructuring and policy divergence in the UK. The Geographical Journal. doi: 10.1111/geoj.12057 McEwen, N. (2013) Independence and the territorial politics of welfare The David Hume Institute Research Paper No. 4/2013. Edinburgh: The David Hume Institute. Available at: http://www.scotlandfutureforum.org/assets/library/files/application/Research_Paper_4-McEwen.pdf Nairn, T. (2003). The break-up of Britain: crisis and neo-nationalism. Common Ground. Rodriguez?Pose, A., & Gill, N. (2005). On the Ã¢â¬Ëeconomic dividendÃ¢â¬â¢of devolution. Regional Studies, 39(4), 405-420. Rose, R. (1982). The Territorial Dimension in Government: Understanding the United Kingdom. Chatham House. Scott, G., & Mooney, G. (2009). Poverty and social justice in the devolved Sc otland: neoliberalism meets social democracy. Social Policy and Society, 3(4), 379-389. Shaw, J., & MacKinnon, D. (2011). Moving on with Ã¢â¬Ëfilling inÃ¢â¬â¢Some thoughts on state restructuring after devolution. Area, 43(1), 23-30. Smith, K., & Hellowell, M. (2012). Beyond Rhetorical Differences: A Cohesive Account of Post?devolution Developments in UK Health Policy. Social Policy & Administration, 46(2), 178-198. Trench, A. (ed.). (2007). Devolution and power in the United Kingdom. Manchester University Press. Williams, C., & Mooney, G. (2008) Decentring social policyDevolution and the discipline of social policy: A commentary. Journal of social policy, 37(3), 489.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Amanda Tatarek 9/29/10 Article Review #1 The article begins by the author explaining that men have privilege over women. Ã¢â¬Å"Denials which amount to taboos surround the subject of advantages which men gain from womenÃ¢â¬â¢s disadvantages. These denials protect male privilege from being fully acknowledged, lessened or ended,Ã¢â¬ (McIntosh, 1998. P. 1). Then the article proceeds to discuss how whites, whether they realize it or not, have a considerable advantage over other races. She lists twenty-six ways that whites have the upper hand. McIntosh explains that as a white person she had been sheltered from the privileges that she had. Ã¢â¬Å"I think whites are taught not to recognize white privilege, as males are taught not to recognize maleÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦There is a black Ms. America and a Black Ms. America, yet the former Ms. America was black. There are sororities that are specifically for particular races yet regular sororities cannot discriminate on race but the race specific ones can. I feel that no matter what race you are you experience discrimination in your lifetime. Coming to Temple and living around Temple, I feel like the minority when I walk on the streets. I feel that it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter what color skin you are, sometimes you will have the upper hand and sometimes you will have the lower hand. That is just how life is. As a teacher I am going to make sure all my children, no matter what race they are, receive equal amount of attention, knowledge, and opportunities within my classroom. I will do this by shaping the curriculum around a multicultural perspective. Ã¢â¬Å"Multicultural education, on the other hand, encourages a culturally responsive curriculum in which diversity is integrated throughout the courses activities and interactions in the classroom,Ã¢â¬ (Gollnick amp; Chinn, 2009, p. 72). I will not let my race overpower the way I write and deliver my lessons. I will use Race and Ethnicity within my curriculum to teach my students to be aware of all cultures and races so they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t blinded by the dominant culture of America. Any child can succeed and do well no matter where they come from.Show MoreRelatedThe Article Learning Through Play : Portraits, Photoshop And Visual Literacy Practices `` Written By Michelle A1020 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe article Ã¢â¬Å"Learning Through Pl ay: Portraits, Photoshop and Visual Literacy PracticesÃ¢â¬ written by Michelle A. Honeyford and Karen Boyd,is about learning literacy through imaginative and visual play. The article gives a detailed look at an afterschool program that lets students learn about literacy while using creativity. Throughout this critique, areas of the article will be discussed that were successful and some that need improvement. One area of success is keeping creativity in education. 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The authorÃ¢â¬â¢s main focus was to address and define the importance of teaching critical literacy as an educational practice by approaching dialogue (social act), reflection (criticalRead MoreArticle Critique Of Joshua Palkki1232 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesArticle Critique of Joshua Palkki (2015) American music teachers need to understand and meet the needs of their Latino/a students, and Palkki (2015) researches approaches that would aid music educators, specifically high school choir directors, in reaching and serving this population in his article Ã¢â¬Å"If it fits into their Culture, then they will have a Connection: experiences of two Latina students in a select high school choir.Ã¢â¬ Palkki (2015) presents a qualitative case study regarding two LatinaRead MoreResearch Critique Part 1736 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesResearch Critique Part 1 Jenna Franz Grand Canyon University Introduction to Nursing Research NRS-433V Mary OConnell September 5, 2013 Research Critique Part 1 This paper will critique a qualitative research study published in the Journal of Medical Ethics in 2004, By Dr Helen Aveyard, about how nurses manage patients who refuse nursing care procedures. The article explains how nurses view informed consent as not being essential to nursing care procedures. Problem Statement The clinicalRead MoreSchool Based Intervention Teams : Implications For Educational And Legal Reform896 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe article Ã¢â¬Å"A Comparison of School-Based Intervention Teams: Implications for Educational and Legal ReformÃ¢â¬ by Bahr and colleagues examines the practices of school-based intervention teams. The purpose of this research is to determine what makes school-based intervention teams more effective in their capacity to address the diverse needs of both educators and students. This paper will provide an overall critique of the aforementioned article and the research techniques involved in the research.
Friday, December 27, 2019
The first two books of Ã¢â¬Å"AugustineÃ¢â¬â¢s ConfessionsÃ¢â¬ focuses primarily on his intellectual formation, his spirituality, and his education. Undoubtedly, Augustine is a very inquisitive individual, and obsesses over his sins. In doing so, Augustine poses all his questions to God, because he believed that our sole existence is to please God until we return to his presence. Moreover, AugustineÃ¢â¬â¢s primary lesson learned through his reflection, was that young Christians would benefit more from the study of Holy scriptures as apposed to the spirit defiling classical studies that have a tendency to promote sin. However, in order for one to reach the same conclusion as Augustine, one must consider his lessons learned from infancy, childhood, andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Although Augustine finds infancy repulsive and sinful, he realizes through infantile observation, that he learned to speak. He states, Ã¢â¬Å"So, as I heard the same words again and again properl y used in different phrases, I came gradually to grasp what things they signified; and forcing my mouth to the same sounds, I began to use them to express my own wishesÃ¢â¬ (Augustine 1.8.19). He learned to speak his demands of his own sinful needs. Now, his mother. Being a pious woman, felt anxiety about Augustine being baptized, so that he would be released from sin. However, Augustine fell ill, and his baptism delayed. Thus, he was left to his sinful nature. Clearly, Augustine has concluded that his lack of baptism played a significant role in his fall, and the importance of spirituality to protect oneÃ¢â¬â¢s soul from grave peril. Secondly, AugustineÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood is recalled as less sinful, and learns the lesion of praising God for the good things about himself, and that his sins during his childhood were due to the misdirection of his gifts that took his eyes off God and placed them on the materialistic world, and the perverted human customs rather than moralit y or truth. For instance, he states to God, Ã¢â¬Å"Yet all these were the gifts of my God, for I did not give them to myself. All these were good, and all these were I. Therefore, He who made me is good and He is my good: and in him I shall exult for all the goodShow MoreRelatedAugustines View of Humanity1047 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCollege Senior (4th year) Essay No Of Sources: 2 Statistical Analysis:Yes Topic:Essay Assignment Augustines Confessions Throughout Confessions, Augustines view humans-- essential nature interesting differences , time periods civilizations, humans. 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This essay will discuss the ethics of Plato, Socrates and St. Augustine According to Plato, evil is simply the result of ignorance. He believed that all people are attempting to do what they understand as good. He believes there are three parts of the soul. There is a rational and moralRead MoreAristotle And Marcus Cicero s Perceptions Of Virtue Ethics And The Development Of Economic Society1623 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesloans and generating income have become norms in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, and are considered supplementary to the economy as a whole. But philosophers have always questioned the morality of how one conducts himself in society. In this essay, we will examine Plato, Aristotle, Saint Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, and Marcus CiceroÃ¢â¬â¢s perceptions of what virtue ethics are, and how they facilitated the development of economic society. 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The introductory quote in this essay follows shortly after. Machiavelli believes that because all men are bad in some for or another, only a ruler who also holds and utilizes these traits when necessary can surviv e. ?Hence it is necessary to a prince, if he wants to maintain himselfRead MoreA Political Philosophy Of Erich Przywara s Analogia Entis1835 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesideologies, it is important to recognize both men lived through similar circumstances. Burke and Przywara both lived through a turbulent time of political instability. During the French Revolution, Burke recognized the faults with the French. In his Reflections on the Revolutions in France he is shocked when the French people arrested the royal family, which discredited the monarchyÃ¢â¬â¢s legitimacy. Eventually this led to the Terror, which occurred soon after BurkeÃ¢â¬â¢s publication. The French rejection of valuesRead MoreViolent Protest In 1848 : Civil Disobedience896 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBartolomÃ © Soto Non-violent civil protest is what its known as a direct action from society and it is part of what Henry Thoreau called in his essay on 1848: Civil disobedienceÃ¢â¬ . Civil disobedience, according to Rawls, is a public act of law breach that looks for create awareness among the population about the need to change certain public policies or certain laws that are considered to be unfair. Nowadays, we can see vivid examples of civil disobedience, being the most famous the case of VenezuelaRead MoreA Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful: Edmund Burke1299 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesaesthetic reflection that accompanies the Enlightenment movement of the 18th century. For them, one of the great aesthetic categories traditions will be discussed: the sublime, starting from one of the most influential texts in the history of aesthetics published in 1757 by Edmund Burke, A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful -a curious essay on the fundamentally political career of its author that will mark a turning point in the later reflections on the